State of Knowledge

Knowledge about food induced emotions grows dynamically. Our method of evaluation is based on current research results.

Publication about the methodology “Empathic Food Test”

The evaluation of the food quality offered by the Wirksensorik GmbH is based on the following publications:

  • Geier U, Hermann I, Mittag K, Buchecker K.
    First steps in the development of a psychological test on the effects of food on mental well-being.
    J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92(14):2753–6.
  • Geier U, Buessing A, Kruse P, Greiner R, Buchecker K (2016)
    Development and Application of a Test for Food-Induced Emotions.
    PLoS ONE 11(11): e0165991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165991

    Read the article
  • Geier, U., Greiner R., Buchecker, K. 2016.
    Measuring food induced emotions of different groups of observers.
    Eurosense. Seventh European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research. 11–14, September 2016, Dijon, France.
  • Geier, U. & Ehrlichmann, M. (2017)
    Wirksensorik - mehr als eine Geschmacksfrage.
    Lebendige Erde 1/2017. Darmstadt.

    Read the article (PDF)

Food-induced emotion in scientific context

Scientists’ interest in food-induced emotions has grown in the past few years. At this point, we would like to highlight some articles that were important to our work: Spinelli et al. (2014) und King et al. (2010, 2013) who developed tests for food-induced emotions, and Jager et al., (2014) who described the dynamics of emotions and taste over time.

Body perception and perceptions of food

With regard to methods that improve the perception of food, we would like to refer to the following sources: Nummenmaa et al. (2014), who showed that the emotions of untrained observers were perceived by the whole body. Bohlmeijer et al. (2010) and Khoury et al. (2015) demonstrated the medicinal effects of the application of mindfulness exercises.

New Knowledge

Our studies in the past few years have yielded numerous results that are an important base for examining emotional and physical effects from food.

  • Taste and food-induced emotions can lead to different product expectations.
  • The application of mindfulness exercises in preparation can improve the perception ability of untrained consumers.
  • People who are trained in the observation of the emotional and physical impact of food on the body achieve the same results as untrained consumers, but their perceptions are more significant.


  • Bohlmeijer E, Prenger R, Taal E, Cuijpers P.
    The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: A meta-analysis.
    J Psychosom Res. 2010;68(6):539–44.
  • Jager G, Schlich P, Tijssen I, Yao J, Visalli M, de Graaf C, et al.
    Temporal dominance of emotions: Measuring dynamics of food-related emotions during consumption.
    Food Qual Prefer. 2014;37:87–99.
  • Khoury B, Sharma M, Rush SE, Fournier C.
    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Healthy Individuals: A Meta-Analysis.
    J Psychosom Res. 2015;78(6):3–12.
  • King SC, Meiselman HL, Carr BT.
    Measuring emotions associated with foods: Important elements of questionnaire and test design.
    Food Qual Prefer. 2013;28(1):8–16.
  • King SC, Meiselman HL.
    Development of a method to measure consumer emotions associated with foods.
    Food Qual Prefer. 2010;21(2):168–77.
  • Nummenmaa, L., Glerean, E., Hari R& HJ.
    Bodily maps of emotions.
    Proc Nat Aca Sc. 2014;111(2):646–51.
  • Spinelli S, Masi C, Dinnella C, Zoboli GP, Monteleone E.
    How does it make you feel? A new approach to measuring emotions in food product experience.
    Food Qual Prefer. 2014;37:109–22.